Hyperpigmentation affects women and men of all ethnic groups, and features areas of darkened skin.
This occurs following skin injury from acne lesions, psoriasis, burns and friction.
It begins to fade as the skin regenerates itself—a process that can take months or more.
On the positive side, PIH generally responds well to treatment.
These are commonly known as liver spots, dark spots or age spots.
Although they do become more prevalent with age—they are found on 90% of light-skinned individuals over the age of 60 — they are not directly caused by the aging process.
Rather, lentigines are related to UV exposure.
There are three main types of hyperpigmentation:
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), Lentigines and Melasma.
This is caused by hormonal fluctuations, common, for example, during pregnancy, with thyroid dysfunction,
and through use of birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy.
Melasma affects an estimated five to six million women in the United States alone and can often be difficult to treat.